This is one of my favorite speeches of all time by this prominent American civil rights leader. Kudos to a certain PaulfromStokeUK for composing and blending the music so beautifully to this speech. So empowering, inspirational, emotional and beautiful! The text of his partial speech as follows:
“…So even though we face the difficulties of today and tomorrow. I still have a dream. It is a dream deeply rooted in the American dream.
I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up… live out the true meaning of its creed. We hold these truths to be self-evident that all men are created equal.
I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will they be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood.
I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a state sweltering with the heat of injustice, sweltering with the heat of oppression will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice.
I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character.
I have a dream today.
I have a dream that one day down in Alabama, with its vicious racists, with its governor having his lips dripping with the words of interposition and nullification; one day right down in Alabama little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls as sisters and brothers.
I have a dream today.
I have a dream that one day every valley shall be exalted, every hill and mountain shall be made low, the rough places will be made plains and the crooked places will be made straight and the glory of the Lord shall be revealed and all flesh shall see it together.
This is our hope. This is the faith that I go back to the South with. With this faith we will be able to hew out of the mountain of despair a stone of hope.
With this faith we will be able to transform the jangling discords of our nation into a beautiful symphony of brotherhood.
With this faith we will be able to work together, to pray together, to struggle together, to go to jail together, to stand up for freedom together, knowing that we will be free one day.
This will be the day, this will be the day when all of God’s children be able to sing with new meaning “My country ’tis of thee, sweet land of liberty, of thee I sing. Land where my fathers died, land of the Pilgrim’s pride, from every mountainside, let freedom ring!”
And if America is to be a great nation, this must become true. So let freedom ring from the prodigious hilltops of New Hampshire. Let freedom ring from the mighty mountains of New York.
Let freedom ring from the heightening Alleghenies of Pennsylvania.
Let freedom ring from the snow-capped Rockies of Colorado.
Let freedom ring from the curvaceous slopes of California.
But not only that, let freedom, ring from Stone Mountain of Georgia.
Let freedom ring from Lookout Mountain of Tenneessee.
Let freedom ring from every hill and molehill of Mississippi, from every mountainside.
Let freedom ring,
And when this happens,and when we allow freedom ring, when we let it ring from every village and every hamlet, from every state and every city, we will be able to speed up that day when all of God’s children, black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics, will be able to join hands and sing in the words of the old negro spiritual, “Free at last, free at last. Thank God Almighty, we are free at last.”
Weimar Republic The period of German history from 1919 to 1933 is known as the Weimar Republic
Failed Beer Hall Revolt, Nov 1923
SA @the brown shirts- Nazi paramilitary wing
SS (Nazi elite guard) cf. Lenin’s Cheka
Reichstag Fire Decree
The Enabling Act
The Third Reich
Statistics of German parliament (reichstag)
Nazi started as a fringe party in 1919
Started as a fringe/minor radical political party, 1919
1928 1930 1932(1) 1932(2)
NSDAP 12 107 230 196
SPD 153 143 133 121
Communist 54 77 89 100
*German parliament 608-seats
FACTORS FOR HITLER’S RISE
The unpopularity of the Weimar Republic- failed to function properly
The Germans overwhelming disgust at the WW1 unjust settlement
1929 Great Depression (occurred worldwide but Germany was seriously affected- loss of job, inflation, uncertainty)
Hitler benefited greatly from this and utilized this effectively in his campaigns and speeches
The collapse of coalition –SPD, The People’s Party (DVP) & Democratic Party DDP in 1929- 1930s democracy did not really function- political stalemate
HITLER APPOINTED THE CHANCELLOR
January 30, 1933, President Hindenburg appointed Adolf Hitler chancellor of Germany
Nazis never captured more than 37 percent of the national vote,
they still held a minority of cabinet posts and fewer than 50 percent of the seats in the Reichstag.
Hitler is the Chancellor in a coalition government
HITLER’s CONSOLIDATION OF POWER( ESTABLISHING DICTATORSHIP)
The Reichstag fire & Suspension civil liberties
Feb 1933, fire on Reichstag, suspect the Communists
Hitler requested the Reichstag to temporarily delegate its powers to him so that he could adequately deal with the crisis
The President issued the Reichstag Fire Decree
suspended most human rights
allowed for the arrest of political adversaries, mostly Communists, and for general terrorizing by the SA
March 1933, the Parliament passed the Enabling Act
transferring all legislative powers to the Hitler government and in effect abolishing the remainder of the Weimar constitution as a whole
SDP was banned, other parties dissolved to avoid arrest
Essentially, dictatorship was established
HOW TO CHARACTERIZE NAZI IDEOLOGY?
Not a coherent ideology, often known as anti something.
Conflicting promises to various groups-workers, big businessmen, middle classes, lower middle class, ex-army, thugs, religious etc
HITLER’S GLORIOUS YEARS (1934-38)
Ian Kershaw “There is few if any leader more popular than Hitler among his own people in the 30s and 40s”
The initial years of Nazi rule improved Germany materially
H reasserted German’s international prestige. Versailles was a huge indignity. Hitler overturned it
Remilitarization of the Rhineland in 1936, redeemed Germany pride.
Against the Versailles terms, he remilitarized the Rhine at the risk of war, but did not cause any military hostility. (Britain & France didn’t take action)
He took the gamble against the advice of his generals
That led to the notion of Hitler’s infallibility- Hitler knows the best.