What is “Europe”?
What criteria—geography culture language/s customs, etc?
Dynamic meanings from the days of ancient Greece to the late 20th centuries.
multiple meanings depending on context. Sometimes –“western countries”
What Criteria? Geography? Culture? Religion?International Bodies, EU, NATO etc.
If culture/lifestyle is the major criterion, Aust & NZ geographically closer to Asia, but “culturally” Euro?
Geographical definition: a stretch of land that covers from the Atlantic through to the Ural Mountains, that constitutes a geographical entity called Europe.
When is the beginning of modern Europe ?
Late 15th- early 16th cent.<Early Modern>l Controversiesl Age of Discovery 1490s- Columbus Voyagesl Renaissance (14th – 17th cent.) transition to a modern period? Muslims “Capture of Constantinople, Reformation (early 16th century)
Modern Times are the period from Enlightenment and the 18th century until today
Crises in Late Medieval Period As a Prelude to Modern Period
14th century severe crisis Black Death (1347-48) killed 1/3 of Euro.
Many regions serious economic depressionsl France-England were involved in a century of feud “Hundred Years War (1337-1453)l
Osmanli dominating the Balkans
Muslims “Capture” of Constantinople in 1453l Holy Roman Empire declined dividing Germany into small principalities
Crises- rethinking revitalizing- challenge & responses